Hamburg Rules

Hague-Visby rules amended under the auspices of UN Conference on Trade & Development at Hamburg (Germany) in 1978, at the behest of the developing countries. These rules make a surface transport carrier liable for all damage resulting to cargo under the carrier’s care, without limitation and without regard to cause, unless it can be shown that the carrier took all reasonable measures required to protect the cargo. However only 20 nations have approved Hamburg rules, with notable exceptions such as the UK, USA, and other developed nations.

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